NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
c) Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the exit price, the price that would be received to sell an asset or transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels, as defined below. Observable inputs are inputs a market participant would use in valuing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of us. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect our own assumptions about the factors a market participant would use in valuing an asset or liability developed using the best information available in the circumstances. The classification of an asset’s or liability’s level within the fair value hierarchy is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Level 1 -
Quoted prices in active markets for an identical asset or liability.
Level 2 -
Inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 -
Inputs that are unobservable for the asset or liability, based on our own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in pricing the asset or liability.
Our financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, Healthcare accounts receivable, other accounts receivable, accounts payable, contingent consideration, short-term debt and long-term debt. With the exception of contingent consideration and long-term debt, the carrying value of these financial instruments approximates their fair value because of their short-term nature (classified as Level 1).
Our long-term debt (classified as Level 2) is measured using market prices for similar instruments, inputs such as the borrowing rates currently available, benchmark yields, actual trade data, broker/dealer quotes and other similar data obtained from quoted market prices or independent pricing vendors.
The fair value of contingent consideration (classified as Level 3) is measured on a recurring basis using unobservable inputs such as projected payment dates, probabilities of meeting specified milestones and other such variables resulting in payment amounts which are discounted back to present value using a probability-weighted discounted cash flow model. Adjustments to contingent consideration are recorded in other charges in the consolidated statements of operations.
In addition to the recurring fair value measurements, the fair value of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with a business combination are recorded at fair value, primarily using a discounted cash flow model (classified as Level 3). This valuation technique requires us to make certain assumptions, including, but not limited to, future operating performance and cash flows, royalty rate and other such variables which are discounted to present value using a discount rate that reflects the risk factors associated with future cash flow, the characteristics of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed and the experience of the acquired business. Non-financial assets such as goodwill, intangible assets, and property and equipment are subsequently measured at fair value when there is an indicator of impairment and recorded at fair value only when an impairment is recognized. We assess the impairment of goodwill and indefinite lived assets annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an intangible asset may not be recoverable.